High School Standards – Science

High School Standards - Science


Physical Science

7. Analyze and interpret data for one- and two-dimensional motion applying basic concepts of distance, displacement, speed, velocity, and acceleration (e.g., velocity versus time graphs, displacement versus time graphs, acceleration versus time graphs).

8. Apply Newton's laws to predict the resulting motion of a system by constructing force diagrams that identify the external forces acting on the system, including friction (e.g., a book on a table, an object being pushed across a floor, an accelerating car).

11. Design and conduct investigations to verify the law of conservation of energy, including transformations of potential energy, kinetic energy, thermal energy, and the effect of any work performed on or by the system.


Biology

12. Develop and use a model to analyze the structure of chromosomes and how new genetic combinations occur through the process of meiosis.

11a. Use mathematics and computation to predict phenotypic and genotypic ratios and percentages by constructing Punnett squares, including using both homozygous and heterozygous allele pairs.

14. Analyze and interpret data to evaluate adaptations resulting from natural and artificial selection that may cause changes in populations over time (e.g., antibiotic-resistant bacteria, beak types, peppered moths, pest-resistant crops).


Chemistry

5. Plan and conduct investigations to demonstrate different types of simple chemical reactions based on valence electron arrangements of the reactants and determine the quantity of products and reactants.

5b. Use mathematics and computational thinking to support the claim that atoms, and therefore mass, are conserved during a chemical reaction.

5a. Use mathematics and computational thinking to represent the ratio of reactants and products in terms of masses, molecules, and moles.


Physics

2. Identify external forces in a system and apply Newton’s laws graphically by using models such as free-body diagrams to explain how the motion of an object is affected, ranging from simple to complex, and including circular motion.

a. Use mathematical computations to derive simple equations of motion for various systems using Newton’s second law.

b. Use mathematical computations to explain the nature of forces (e.g., tension, friction, normal) related to Newton’s second and third laws

5. Construct models that illustrate how energy is related to work performed on or by an object and explain how different forms of energy are transformed from one form to another (e.g., distinguishing between kinetic, potential, and other forms of energy such as thermal and sound; applying both the work-energy theorem and the law of conservation of energy to systems such as roller coasters, falling objects, and spring-mass systems; discussing the effect of frictional forces on energy conservation and how it affects the motion of an object.


Earth

7. Analyze and interpret evidence regarding the theory of plate tectonics, including geologic activity along plate boundaries and magnetic patterns in undersea rocks, to explain the ages and movements of continental and oceanic crusts.

9. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to explain how constructive and destructive processes (e.g., weathering, erosion, volcanism, orogeny, plate tectonics, tectonic uplift) shape Earth's land features (e.g., mountains, valleys, plateaus) and sea features (e.g., trenches, ridges, seamounts).

12. Develop a model of Earth's layers using available evidence to explain the role of thermal convection in the movement of Earth's materials (e.g., seismic waves, movement of tectonic plates).


Environmental

1. Investigate and analyze the use of nonrenewable energy sources (e.g., fossil fuels, nuclear, natural gas) and renewable energy sources (e.g., solar, wind, hydroelectric, geothermal) and propose solutions for their impact on the environment.

7. Analyze and interpret data to investigate how a single change on Earth’s surface may cause changes to other Earth systems (e.g., loss of ground vegetation causing an increase in water runoff and soil erosion).

16. Obtain and evaluate information from published results of scientific computational models to illustrate the relationships among Earth’s systems and how these relationships may be impacted by human activity (e.g., effects of an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide on photosynthetic biomass, effect of ocean acidification on marine populations).


Anatomy & Physiology

7. Use models to determine the relationship between the structures in and functions of the cardiovascular system (e.g., components of blood, blood circulation through the heart and systems of the body, ABO blood groups, anatomy of the heart, types of blood vessels).

8. Communicate scientific information to explain the relationship between the structures and functions, both mechanical (e.g., chewing, churning in stomach) and chemical (e.g., enzymes, hydrochloric acid [HCl] in stomach), of the digestive system, including the accessory organs (e.g., salivary glands, pancreas).

9. Develop and use a model to explain how the organs of the respiratory system function.


Marine

11. Develop and use models to predict adaptations resulting from natural and artificial selection that may cause changes in populations over time (e.g. countershading, camouflage, fin shape, body shape, beak or mouth types).

10b. Develop and use models to differentiate the physical structures and behavioral characteristics of the marine invertebrate phyla.

10c. Develop and use models to differentiate the physical structures and behavioral characteristics of the marine vertebrate classes.


Zoology

4b. Develop and use models to differentiate the physical structures and behavioral characteristics of all of the Animal Vertebrate classes.

7. Engage in argument from evidence to describe how human activity may affect ecosystems positively (e.g. planting trees, establishing bird sanctuaries and national parks) and negatively (e.g. habitat destruction, overhunting, pollution)

8. Design, carry out and analyze an experimental field study of animal behavior to determine the behavioral patterns exhibited in animal niche in relation to habitat.


Forensics

6. Describe ways to identify blood evidence.

8. Describe the importance of genetic information in forensics.

10. Identify the importance of skeletal remains in forensics. Compare bones and skulls based on age, sex, and race. Use forensic dentistry to establish identity.